The text argues that only in two ideal types of constitution does corruption not occur: under an absolute monarchy and under a system of popular sovereignty. The author argues that we must look at intermediary groups as an important part of corruption, and that it is often against the will of the heads of states that such corruption happens, as well as against the will of the people. By setting themselves apart from lower groups, intermediary groups develop their own social and economic consciousness and view themselves as of a higher order, and thus have the right to set themselves apart from the rest. In the past, these groups were noblemen and patricians; today they appear in the form of bureaucracy and civil servants. Corruption of the intermediary group can be divided into two broad groups: corruption at the expense of the treasury, and corruption at the expense of the people.
Political Corruption: Concepts & Contexts